Other procedures can also be used. Pupae of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Integument unsclerotized, entirely whitish to yellowish. Larval cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Learn more. Photograph by Scott Bauer, USDA. Alternatively, the Blood & Tissue Kit (Qiagen) according to the animal tissue protocol can be used. The caudal end has bifurcate or paired dorsal papillules (D1 and D2) on small mount of relatively flat plate; intermediate papillules (I1-2) as a line of fused elevations on a very enlarged subspiracular tubercle, plus a remote I3 at approximately 45 degrees from I1-2; L1 on the median edge of the caudal end; V1 not prominent; posterior spiracles elongate (4.5 to 5X width), with dorsal and ventral spiracles angled away from relatively planar median spiracle; interspiracular processes (hairs) usually not branched; anal lobe bifid or entire. Abstract. Ceratitis capitata Ceratitis capitata 2011-12-01 00:00:00 Introduction Ceratitis capitata is the most serious pest for citrus and many other fruits in the majority of countries with a warm, Mediterranean, tropical or subtropical climate ( EPPO/CABI, 1997 ). E‐mail: valerie.balmes@anses.fr. Protocol developed by the Plant Protection Service, the Netherlands (2004, Data not published). This helps spread the insecticidal dye-and-bait blend through the population (Moreno et al. Photograph by Scott Bauer, USDA. larvae and emerged adults of Ceratitis capitata. In addition to reduction of crop yield, infested areas have the additional expense of control measures and costly sorting processes for both fresh and processed fruit and vegetables. 1960. The species originated in sub-Saharan Africa and is not known to be established in the continental United States. The last instar is usually 7 to 9 mm in length, with eight ventral fusiform areas. 100-102. 2.0 μL reverse primer ITS1‐B9 (10 μM), final concentration 0.4 μM. Steck and B.D. The adults are slightly smaller than a house fly and have picture wings typical of fruit flies. (especially peaches, P. persica). Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) es un díptero perteneciente a la familia Tephritidae.Es originaria de la costa occidental de África, donde viven especies muy próximas, desde donde se ha extendido a otras zonas templadas, subtropicales y tropicales de los dos hemisferios.Es considerada como especie cosmopolita, por su dispersión debida al transporte de productos realizado por el hombre. Attacked fruit will often have puncture marks made by the female’s ovipositor. Miscellaneous Publications, No. Learn about our remote access options. Molecular grade water (MGW) is used to make up reaction mixes; this should be purified (deionised or distilled), sterile (autoclaved or 0.45 μM filtered) and nuclease free. United States Department of Agriculture Bulletin 640: 1-43. Berg GH. Cold Disinfestation of "Hass" Avocado (Persia americana) of Three Species of Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)-Ceratitis capitata, Ceratitis rosa, and Ceratitis cosyra. Tests should be repeated if contradictory or unclear results are obtained. Please note that morphological terminology follows White & Elson‐Harris (1992). DNA is extracted using the High Pure PCR Template Preparation Kit (Roche) according to the mammalian tissue protocol. Ripe fruit is likely to be more juicy, and such fruits often are associated with a high mortality of eggs and young larvae. 2008. 7). Photograph by Division of Plant Industry. When the eggs hatch, the larvae promptly begin eating. This standard describes a diagnostic protocol for Ceratitis capitata.11 of economic importance. Most previous illustrations of the cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton of the species have not shown the pharyngeal plate hood, and details of the illustrations also vary among themselves (see Greene 1929, Phillips 1946). They can be distinguished fairly readily from any of the native fruit flies of the New World. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society 70: 67-69. Males often show sexual activity four days after emergence, and copulation has been observed five days after emergence. The ITS1 PCR‐RFLP results obtained using the C. capitata specimens were consistent and unique to target species. Two parts were analysed at the same moment, the third part was analysed by another technician using different equipment on a different day. The full text of this article hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to technical difficulties. Photograph by USDA. As an enormous threat to world trade in horticultural products, they cause massive damage to fruits and … Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. Note that a reliable morphological identification can only be performed on an adult specimen. Negative Isolation Control (NIC) to monitor contamination during sample preparation and DNA extraction: empty tube processed as if it was a real sample. The test is considered negative if the expected bands following digestion are not produced as described. ITS1 primers ITS1‐F5/ITS1‐B9 amplify 1020 bp of C. capitata DNA. Aganaspis pelleranoi (Bréthes) (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) is an important fruit fly parasitoid native to the Neotropics. 13 pp. Other Ceratitis are commonly found in imported fruits: Ceratitis anonae (Graham), C. cosyra (Walker) and C. rosa Karsch. There are dark streaks and spots in middle of wing cells in and anterior to anal cell. 5). Fully grown larvae, when the surrounding air temperature is warm, flex and "jump" repeatedly as much as 25 mm when removed from fruit. A molecular test is also described that can be performed on adults or larvae. A Manual of the Insects of the Hawaiian Islands, including an Enumeration of the Species and the Notes on their Origin, Distribution, Hosts, Parasites, etc. Extended ovipositor 1.2 mm long. Details on its current geographical distribution are available in the EPPO Database Plant Quarantine data Retrieval system (EPPO, 2011). Figure 10. In this age of jet transportation, the medfly can be transported from one part of the world to some distant place in a matter of hours, which greatly complicates efforts to contain it within its present distribution. There is no successful control program of this pest fly in the endemic Argan forest in Morocco. Journal of Economic Entomology 64: 708-713. However, this identification has a high level of uncertainty. Entomological Society of America. For identification of the Family Tephritidae, see Papp & Darvas (2000). Adults die within four days if they cannot obtain food. 0.5 μL 10 Units restriction enzyme, final amount 5 Units. Pictorial key to fruit fly larvae of the family Tephritidae. (17 July 2001). English: Medfly larvae (Ceratitis capitata) Português: Larva de Mosca do mediterrâneo (Ceratitis capitata) Date: 10 August 2008 (upload date) Source: Own work: Author: Daniel Feliciano: Author: Daniel Feliciano Location: São Domingos de Rana - Cascais - Portugal Licensing . In some of the Mediterranean countries, only the earlier varieties of citrus are grown, because the flies develop so rapidly that late season fruits are too heavily infested to be marketable. A new technique with temperature-sensitive medflies allows for the mass production of medflies in the laboratory by bathing medfly eggs in warm water — a process that kills the female embryos but doesn't harm the male embryos. Male anterior pair of orbital bristles different (, Anterior pair of orbital bristles modified with apical end dark and diamond‐shaped, Anterior pair of orbital bristles not modified (. Figure 2. After mating, one female adult can lay as many as 800 eggs during its lifetime . BTLH van de Vossenberg, the Netherlands. Nucleotides are used at a final concentration of 0.2 mM each. 1975. Back and Pemberton (1915) noted that this period may be increased to at least 19 days when the daily temperature means drop to about 69 to 71°F (20.6 to 21.7°C). Peach infested with larvae of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The males are easily separated from all other members of this family by the black pointed expansion at the apex of the anterior pair of orbital setae. Wing of the adult Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). C. capitata has been recorded feeding on over 300 host plants. Register. 5.0 μL 10 × reaction buffer, minus Mg (Invitrogen) final concentration 1 ×. The anterior spiracles are usually nearly straight on dorsal edge of tubule row (often more straight than illustrated). Figure 1. Figure 4. Graphic by Division of Plant Industry. The thorax is creamy white to yellow with a characteristic pattern of black blotches. The larvae feed upon the pulp of host fruits, sometimes tunneling through it and eventually reducing the whole to a juicy, inedible mass. 1918. Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) [1]. Guidelines on reporting and documentation are given in EPPO Standard PM7/77 (1) Documentation and reporting on a diagnosis. Further information on this organism can be obtained from: V Balmès, France. Cooperative Mediterranean Fruit Fly Project (California). 1981 (publication date not given). Failure to feed the flies will result in specimens that have shrivelled abdomens and dull colours making identification problematic (White & Elson‐Harris, 1992). Humeral bristles present. The median area is relatively unsclerotized. When it has been detected in Florida, California, and Texas, especially in recent years, each infestation necessitated intensive and massive eradication and detection procedures so that the pest did not become established. E‐mail: b.t.l.h.van.de.vossenberg@minlnv.nl. Even after an infestation is believed eradicated, the greatly increased number of traps and their inspection interval remains high for several months before an infestated is officially declared eradicated. Development in egg, larval, and pupal stages stops at 50°F (10°C). The ITS1 PCR‐RFLP assay was found to be 100% repeatable and reproducible. Some countries maintain quarantines against the medfly, which could jeopardize some fresh fruit markets if it should become established in Florida. Larval Diagnosis The primary diagnostic characters for Mediterranean fruit fly larvae involve the anterior spiracles, the buccal carinae, and the prominent subspiracular tubercles of the caudal end. Native to sub‐Saharan Africa, Ceratitis capitata has spread to Mauritius, Reunion, Seychelles, North Africa, Southern Europe, the Middle East, Western Australia and to parts of Central South and North America. Photograph by USDA. 4.0 μL MgCl2 (50 mM, Invitrogen), final concentration 4.0 mM. It has spread from there to other mild, subtropical and tropical zones in both hemispheres.It is considered a cosmopolitan species and can be found in many places because it travels with produce transported by … Volume 13. Primers described by Douglas and Haymer (2001) located in the 18S and 5.8S regions spanning the ITS1 region: forward primer ITS1‐F5 (5′‐ CAC GGT TGT TTC GCA AAA GTT G – 3′) and reverse primer ITS1‐B9 (5′‐ TGC AGT TCA CAC GAT GAC GCA C – 3′), each used at a final concentration of 0.4 μM. Sterile Fruit Fly Release: This control method relies on flooding the area of an 1.0 μL 10 × reaction buffer (Promega), final concentration 1 ×. Lower half of occiput with white setae. Posterior spriacles (left side) (after Phillips 1946) of a larva of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Mediterranean fruit fly not present in New Zealand. Figure 6. A female medfly will lay one to 10 eggs in an egg cavity 1 mm deep, may lay as many as 22 eggs per day, and may lay as many as 800 eggs during her lifetime (usually about 300). 6). After amplification, 5 μL of the PCR products are subjected to electrophoresis on a 1.5% agarose gel by standard methods (Sambrook et al., 1989) along with a 1 kb‐plus DNA ladder (Invitrogen) to size fragments. Platinum®Taq DNA Polymerase (5 U μL−1, Invitrogen) used for PCR amplification at a final amount of 1 Unit. Also different incubation times (45 min, 1 h, 24 h) were used for the digestion with restriction enzymes. Jumping behaviour of the Mediterranean fruit fly larva Ceratitis capitata (Tephritidae) (especially peaches, P. persica ). Head with accessory teeth near oral hooks. Joint cooperative Mediterranean fruit fly eradication project. When all the larvae have emerged from the fruit or if any sign of mould appears the sawdust should be sieved and the puparia collected. 4). By the third instar, larvae are opaque white and 0.6 to 0.8 cm long. Thus larvae require 14 to 26 days to reach maturity in a ripe lemon, as compared with 10 to 15 days in a green peach. Taxonomic position: Diptera Brachycera Tephritidae. Greene CT. 1929. De Woskin R. 1981. Thank you for your cooperation in the eradication of Mediterranean fruit fly. The Mediterranean fruit fly and its economic impact on Central American countries and Panama. 1979. StephensonB@maf.govt.nz. When it has been detected in Florida, California, and Texas, especially in recent years, each infestation necessitated intensive and massive eradication and detection procedures so that the pest did not become established. Basal part with characteristic pattern of streaks and spots typical of genus. Back EA, Pemberton CE. Head is to the left. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Host status of ‘Scifresh’ apples to the invasive fruit fly species Bactrocera Dorsalis, Zeugodacus Cucurbitae, and Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2338.2011.02519.x, Subcostal vein abruptly bent and dorsal side of vein R1 with setulae (, Subcostal vein not abruptly bent or dorsal side of vein R1 lacks setulae, Cell cup with sinuous extension (as shown in, Scutellum yellow‐white basally, apically with three merged black spots (, Wing with apex of vein M not covered by a diagonal coloured band (, Wing with apex of vein M covered by a diagonal crossband. The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata is a major pest in horticulture. Photograph by Scott Bauer, USDA. to the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) fed on a lab diet. Host Plants of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera Tephritidae): An Annotated World Review. Photograph by Jeffery Lotz, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services-Division of Plant Industry; www.forestryimage.org. Once an adult Mediterranean fruit fly is positively identified, the number of baited traps throughout that area is greatly increased to capture the flies and remove them from the environment, and to serve as a monitoring tool for the effectiveness of the eradication program. Ceratitis capitata hcan be found in agricultural areas where large quantities of fruit provide plenty of food. Figure 9. Length of 1st instar larva 1 mm or less, body mostly transparent; 2nd instar body partially transparent; fully grown 3rd instar 6.8–8.2 mm, body fully opaque white or colour of ingested food. PTC‐200 (MJ‐Research). The analytical specificity was determined using 13 C. capitata specimens from different localities, and 89 specimens from 24 species belonging to the genera Anastrepha, Bactrocera, Ceratitis, Delia and Rhagoletis. Ceratitis capitata larvae, see White & Elson -Harris (1992), but it should be noted that this key is based on old and inadequate descriptions and does not include all Ceratitis spp. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. For identification of the family Tephritidae, see Stehr (1991); for identification of the genera and species Ceratitis capitata larvae, see White & Elson‐Harris (1992), but it should be noted that this key is based on old and inadequate descriptions and does not include all Ceratitis spp. pp. The duration of the egg stage is considerably increased by lower temperatures. Males of C. capitata are easily distinguished from all other species of this family (see Appendix 1) by the characteristic diamond‐shaped (capitate) expansion at the apex of the anterior pair of orbital bristles (Fig. Figure 18. Figure 21. Newly emerged adults are not sexually mature. Author information: (1)School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, United Kingdom. United States Department of Agriculture Cooperative Plant Pest Report 1: 117-118. Toggle navigation. Head and buccal carinae of larva of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Caudal end of larva of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Larvae pass through three instars. The assay is designed to internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 sequences of C. capitata. Pupa: The pupa is cylindrical, 4 to 4.3 mm long, dark reddish brown, and resembles a swollen grain of wheat. 189 pp. PCR products are viewed and photographed under UV light. Mesonotum ground colour black; pattern of silvery microtrichiae, black spots, sutural white spots and prescutellar white band. The pest can also be found anywhere from sea level to mountainous areas ( over 2,133 m elevation! 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Or store it at −20°C until use according to the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata ( Wiedemann ) of spiracles! Enlarged spatulate tips next to the Mediterranean fruit fly ) - biology and Ecology diagnostic.. B, better known as the FDA-approved Red dye number 28 eggs during its lifetime large... Are produced adapted from white & Elson‐Harris ( 1992 ) world Review a full-text of. Prepared and tested according to the Animal tissue protocol can be used 656 )! Male Mediterranean fruit fly suppression are the four stages that the medfly which... And two narrow transverse light bands on basal half 2 ] the mammalian tissue protocol, larvae are white. Positioned throughout likely areas where medflies might appear slightly smaller than a house fly and its impact! Pest Report 1: 117-118 the hypostomium ( posterior view and lateral view of Mediterranean! Pupae carry the species originated in sub-Saharan Africa and is not known to be....