For other uses, see, Representation of language in a textual medium, "Writings" redirects here. Indus script refers to short strings of symbols associated with the Indus Valley Civilization (which spanned modern-day Pakistan and North India) used between 2600 and 1900 BC. Since the number of principal signs is about 400–600,[30] midway between typical logographic and syllabic scripts, many scholars accept the script to be logo-syllabic[31] (typically syllabic scripts have about 50–100 signs whereas logographic scripts have a very large number of principal signs). News reporting typically involves writing about what, when, where and why an event happened. Cluj-Napoca, Milojcic, Vl. As languages often evolve independently of their writing systems, and writing systems have been borrowed for languages they were not designed for, the degree to which letters of an alphabet correspond to phonemes of a language varies greatly from one language to another and even within a single language. Русский 1 688 000+ статей. Deutsch 2 519 000+ Artikel. Over the centuries, three distinct Elamite scripts developed. The Liberty Bell is an important and famous symbol of American independence (freedom). Reports are not required to follow this pattern and may use alternative methods such as the problem-solution format, wherein the author first lists an issue and then details what must be done to fix the problem. The Phoenician system was also adapted into the Aramaic script, from which the Hebrew and the Arabic scripts are descended. [citation needed], In 2003, archaeologists reported discoveries of isolated tortoise-shell carvings dating back to the 7th millennium BC, but whether or not these symbols are related to the characters of the later oracle-bone script is disputed.[23][24]. A sixth category, pictographic, is insufficient to represent language on its own, but often forms the core of logographies. This writing system was an odd sort of syllabary in which only consonants are represented. The invention of the first writing systems is roughly contemporary with the beginning of the Bronze Age of the late 4th millennium BC. The report is a very familiar thing that every manager has to write it frequently or occasionally. The Taj Mahal is a mosque like building and tomb built in the 16th century by the Mughal emperor, Shah Jahan in memory of his wife, Mumtaz Mahal.. There are many types of a report like a monthly report, seller report, market report, reports to the board, research report etc. REPORT WRITING a guide to organisation and style by David Rudd Course: B.A (Hons) Yr II, University of Bolton Tutor: Dr A. N. Other, Dept of Life Date: April 2005 Learning Support and Development University of Bolton 2005 . It allows students to convey their understanding. These devices can be seen out among people of all ages, all over the world. Writing allows societies to transmit information and to share and preserve knowledge. This system was gradually augmented with using a sharp stylus to indicate what was being counted by means of pictographs. [7] As Charles Bazerman explains, the "marking of signs on stones, clay, paper, and now digital memories—each more portable and rapidly travelling than the previous—provided means for increasingly coordinated and extended action as well as memory across larger groups of people over time and space. (2008). Around the 4th millennium BC, the complexity of trade and administration outgrew the power of memory, and writing became a more dependable method of recording and presenting transactions in a permanent form.[32]. [3] It has also been observed that the activity of writing itself can have knowledge-transforming effects, since it allows humans to externalize their thinking in forms that are easier to reflect on and potentially rework. Reports help the top line in decision making. Heading- A descriptive title that is expressive of the contents of the report. This site was also home to a temple of Hathor, the "Mistress of turquoise". Only people from certain backgrounds were allowed to train to become scribes, in the service of temple, pharaonic, and military authorities, resulting in only 1 percent of the population that could write. 3 Important Sources to Collect the Information for Writing an Outstanding Report. To avoid making a picture for each instance of the same object (for example: 100 pictures of a hat to represent 100 hats), they 'counted' the objects by using various small marks. In general, we should underline foreign words used in an English text. Academic writing serves as communication tool for conveying acquired knowledge in a specific field of study. Further innovations included more uniform, predictable, and widely dispersed legal systems, distribution and discussion of accessible versions of sacred texts, and the origins of modern practices of scientific inquiry and knowledge-consolidation, all largely reliant on portable and easily reproducible forms of inscribed language. ", Estrem, Heidi. Writing systems are not themselves human languages (with the debatable exception of computer languages); they are means of rendering a language into a form that can be reconstructed by other humans separated by time and/or space. Reports present adequate information on various aspects of the business. Several scholars maintain that structural analysis indicates that an agglutinative language underlies the script. A small number of bronze inscriptions from the same period have also survived. Related - Letter Writing, Letter Writing Format, Topics and Example . Project Report/Essay on Importance of Trees : Trees are an important part of the Biosphere that exists on earth. More papers by Samuel: Contemporary World Meaning; Graphs serve many concrete realworld; Microbiology Unknown Lab Report However, always keep in mind that there is no universally accepted format in report writing. Blick, Ronald (2003). It acts as a treasure house of reliable information for long term planning and decision making. This type of writing makes students take in what they have read and decide how much importance it holds for their subject. This page was last edited on 31 December 2020, at 12:49. It is helpful to state whether you are writing for a technical or general reader - or any other particular group. Summary Writing Chapter 4 Objectives 1. However, such phonetic elements complement the logographic elements, rather than vice versa. These are called abugidas. Berlin & New York. Later they began placing these tokens inside large, hollow clay containers (bulla, or globular envelopes) which were then sealed. A bibliography or list of references will appear at the end of any credible report and citations are often included within the text itself. Writing helps you express yourself. Individuals in a variety of contexts and with varied professional credentials engage in technical communication. The report is now takingshape, although little or no formal writing has beenproduced. 3. It allows students to convey their understanding When students learn about a complex subject at university, it can be difficult for them to explain what they have understood if they struggle with academic writing . It is important to make the purpose of the report very clear in the introduction. [6] Amateur historians, including H.G. The report is a very familiar thing that every manager has to write it frequently or occasionally. Soil report - Designing Buildings Wiki - Share your construction industry knowledge. Report Writing Format for CBSE Class 10-12 Format of a Magazine Report. The bell was ordered from the London firm of Lester and Pack (which is known as the Whitechapel Bell Foundry today) in 1752. The earliest inscription identified as Maya dates to the 3rd century BC. The name of the book in which a person is doing research is always italicized. In most of the writing systems of the Middle East, it is usually only the consonants of a word that are written, although vowels may be indicated by the addition of various diacritical marks. Any time that people work together, it is important to make rules that they should agree to follow. The essentials of good/effective report writing are as follows- Know your objective, i.e., be focused. Historians have found that the type of media used had an effect on what the writing was documenting and how it was used. Alba Regia 10, 9–50, Makkay, J. Informal Report. [33] In approximately 8000 BC, the Mesopotamians began using clay tokens to count their agricultural and manufactured goods. 1990 Mitograma de acum 8 milenii. When you're assigned to write a report, it can seem like an intimidating process. 2.1.5 The main body of the report Tibiscum, 57–68, Lazarovici, Gh., Fl. Most official form of information or work is completed via report. The greatest benefit of writing is that it provides the tool by which society can record information consistently and in greater detail, something that could not be achieved as well previously by spoken word. Another featural script is SignWriting, the most popular writing system for many sign languages, where the shapes and movements of the hands and face are represented iconically. [21], The earliest surviving examples of writing in China—inscriptions on so-called "oracle bones", tortoise plastrons and ox scapulae used for divination—date from around 1200 BC in the late Shang dynasty. BAR, Merlini, Marco 2004 La scrittura è natta in Europa?, Roma (2004), Merlini, Marco and Gheorghe Lazarovici 2008 Luca, Sabin Adrian ed. How to write a good report; Difference from essay; Topics; Structure; Tips for good writing; 1. The major writing systems—methods of inscription—broadly fall into five categories: logographic, syllabic, alphabetic, featural, and ideographic (symbols for ideas). A report is a form of writing that is systematic, organized, and often tries to define or analyze a problem or an event. Construction activities can have an adverse effect on soils and so its impacts need careful consideration as part of the development process. By the end of the 4th millennium BC,[34] the Mesopotamians were using a triangular-shaped stylus pressed into soft clay to record numbers. Wikipedia began as a related project for Nupedia.Nupedia was a free online English-language encyclopedia project. Content of this article. Some patient base on their history because a lot of their family’s having failure heart problem too. Bibliotheca Musei Napocensis 19. This script was adapted to another Mesopotamian language, the East Semitic Akkadian (Assyrian and Babylonian) around 2600 BC, and then to others such as Elamite, Hattian, Hurrian and Hittite. • An important aspect of report writing is to consider your audience. Drasovean & Z. Maxim 2000 The Eagle – the Bird of death, regeneration resurrection and messenger of Gods. They play an essential part in the life of man. Reports are often conveyed in writing, speech, television, or film. In, Goldwasser, Orly. Analyze the niche audience, i.e., make an analysis of the target audience, the purpose for which audience requires the report, kind of data audience is looking for in the report, the implications of report reading, etc. REPORT It is any informational work made with an intention to relay information or recounting certain events in a presentable manner. Ljubljana:2005–2019. The significance of the reports includes: One of the most common formats for presenting reports is IMRAD—introduction, methods, results, and discussion. Nupedia was first licensed under the Nupedia Open … Medical writing as a function became established in the pharmaceutical and contract research organization industry because the industry recognized that it requires special skill to produce well-structured documents that present information clearly and concisely. Quality reports will be well researched and the speaker will list their sources if at all possible. The importance of literature reviews in academic field is very huge and the teachers used to ask with students to come up with quality literature review. It is generally agreed that Sumerian writing was an independent invention; however, it is debated whether Egyptian writing was developed completely independently of Sumerian, or was a case of cultural diffusion. Indeed, scholarly writings have linked the above mentioned conditions with increased teacher motivation to exert extra effort in teaching (Geisel, Sleegers, Leithwood and Jantzi, 2003). Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia, created and edited by volunteers around the world and hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. They keep low profiles and their reporters usually do not get bylines. [11], The typewriter and various forms of word processors have subsequently become widespread writing tools, and various studies have compared the ways in which writers have framed the experience of writing with such tools as compared with the pen or pencil.[12][13][14][15][16]. Report provide reliable data which can be used in the planning and decision making process. Phonetically related syllables are not so indicated in the script. Reports are often conveyed in writing, speech, television, or film. Historians draw a sharp distinction between prehistory and history, with history defined by the advent of writing. ... news agencies tend to use less controversial language in their reports. You should follow the format set by your company or course. Professionals need to have good technical writing skills in the preparation of reports, presentations, documentation, etc. The Journal of Indo-European Studies 17, Lazarovici, Gh., Fl. 1965 Zu den Tafeln aus Tartaria. "The Collection and Organization of Written Knowledge." Because of this use, Greek is often considered to be the first alphabet. It was not until the 12th to 9th centuries, however, that the alphabet took hold and became widely used. An essay is, generally, a piece of writing that gives the author's own argument — but the definition is vague, overlapping with those of a letter, a paper, an article, a pamphlet, and a short story.Essays have traditionally been sub-classified as formal and informal. Now, it is very important to follow a proper report writing format. Writing a report edu@unsw.edu.au 9385 5584 - 5 - BODY This is the main part of your report. The main people of the company were Jimmy Wales, the guy in charge of Bomis, and Larry Sanger, the editor-in-chief for Nupedia. Writing prepares you for school and employment (both of which in most cases require a lot of it). Linear B, the writing system of the Mycenaean Greeks,[27] has been deciphered while Linear A has yet to be deciphered. "Writing is a Knowledge-Making Activity. The earliest known hieroglyphs date back to the second half of the 4th millennium BC, such as the clay labels of a Predynastic ruler called "Scorpion I" (Naqada IIIA period, c. 32nd century BC) recovered at Abydos (modern Umm el-Qa'ab) in 1998 or the Narmer Palette, dating to c. 3100 BC, and several recent discoveries that may be slightly older, though these glyphs were based on a much older artistic rather than written tradition. The competition was held in the language room. The cave paintings and petroglyphs of prehistoric peoples can be considered precursors of writing, but they are not considered true writing because they did not represent language directly. The term 'Indus script' is mainly applied to that used in the mature Harappan phase, which perhaps evolved from a few signs found in early Harappa after 3500 BC,[28] and was followed by the mature Harappan script. Most of the rules written here must be followed by everyone, and some of the rules are still being decided. Cretan hieroglyphs are found on artifacts of Crete (early-to-mid-2nd millennium BC, MM I to MM III, overlapping with Linear A from MM IIA at the earliest). [22] In use only for a brief time (c. 3200–2900 BC), clay tablets with Proto-Elamite writing have been found at different sites across Iran. How to Write a Geographical Report: 14 Steps (with Pictures) ", Anderson, Jack. "Write" redirects here. The Elamite cuneiform script was used from about 2500 to 331 BC, and was adapted from the Akkadian cuneiform. Reports communicate the planning, policies and other matters regarding an organization to the masses. Writing was very important in maintaining the Egyptian empire, and literacy was concentrated among an educated elite of scribes. [17][18][19] It is thought to be Olmec. An excavation near Ashgabat, the capital of Turkmenistan, revealed an inscription on a piece of stone that was used as a stamp seal. For instance, all sounds pronounced with the lips ("labial" sounds) may have some element in common. A featural script notates in an internally consistent way the building blocks of the phonemes that make up a language. If you’re writing a report in the workplace, check whether there are any standard guidelines or structure that you need to use. By line- Name of the person writing the report. Studii, articole, note. 日本語 1 246 000+ 記事. The sparse telegraphic writing style spilled over into newspapers, which often reprinted stories from the wire with little embellishment. There are many types of a report like a monthly report, seller report, market report, reports to the board, research report … [20] Maya writing used logograms complemented by a set of syllabic glyphs, somewhat similar in function to modern Japanese writing. 9+ Report Writing Example for Students - PDF, DOC | Examples In academia there is some overlap between reports and essays, and the two words are sometimes used interchangeably, but reports are more likely to be needed for business, scientific and technical subjects, and in the workplace.Essentially, a report is By the Greco-Roman period, there are more than 5,000. Such systems are called abjads, derived from the Arabic word for "alphabet". Any time that people work together, it is important to make rules that they should agree to follow. In a perfectly phonological alphabet, the phonemes and letters would correspond perfectly in two directions: a writer could predict the spelling of a word given its pronunciation, and a speaker could predict the pronunciation of a word given its spelling. He studies Biological Sciences at Ohio State University. Atheneum 1, p. 28, Paul, I. Syllabaries are best suited to languages with a relatively simple syllable structure, such as Japanese. Sometimes the shape, orientation, and meaning of individual signs changes over time. Scripts similar in appearance to this writing system include those for Ugaritic and Old Persian. Heading- A descriptive title that is expressive of the contents of the report. This structure, standard for the genre, mirrors traditional publication of scientific research and summons the ethos and credibility of that discipline. In Korean hangul, however, all four labial consonants are based on the same basic element, but in practice, Korean is learned by children as an ordinary alphabet, and the featural elements tend to pass unnoticed. In many parts of the world, writing has become an even more important part of daily life as digital technologies have helped connect individuals from across the globe through systems such as e-mail and social media. The many tools and writing materials used throughout history include stone tablets, clay tablets, bamboo slats, papyrus, wax tablets, vellum, parchment, paper, copperplate, styluses, quills, ink brushes, pencils, pens, and many styles of lithography. 1997 Neo-eneoliticul din Transilvania. If the objectives of the report have beenclarified, the writer will know the appropriate levelof technical language and the correct tone for thereadership. The Sumerian archaic cuneiform script and the Egyptian hieroglyphs are generally considered the earliest writing systems, both emerging out of their ancestral proto-literate symbol systems from 3400 to 3200 BC with earliest coherent texts from about 2600 BC. Report writing is different from other forms of writing because it only includes facts, not the opinion or judgement of the writer. Report is an administrative necessity. Writing is a medium of human communication that involves the representation of a language with symbols. It is not to be confused with, Historical significance of writing systems, Phoenician writing system and descendants, Schmandt-Besserat, Denise and Michael Erard. It therefore features a serious tone … Get Essay In research papers and manuscripts submitted for publication, words that would be italicized in print are usually underlined. News reports play … Each class had to send two representatives to take part in the competition. 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