The scope of his foreign policy was to gain the most advantageous terms for his family.Two of Alexander's successors, Sixtus V and Urban VIII, described him as one of the most outstanding popes since Saint Peter. The collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century created a political and cultural vacuum that was filled, in part, by the Roman Catholic Church. He sired at least twelve children through a number of mistresses. Alexander carried on a double policy, always ready to seize opportunities to aggrandize his family. When the 21-year-old duke was murdered, suspects included the rival Orsini and Sforza families who hated the infamous House of Borgia. He was instrumental in the election of Innocent VIII to the papal tiara in 1484, but fell out of favor upon the pope’s death in 1492, when as an aspiring cardinal he was passed over for the Borgia pope, Alexander VI (1492–1503). Giovanni Borgia, 2nd Duke of Gandia, was the favorite son of Pope Alexander VI and a married woman. Pope John XII (955 to 964) ... Pope Alexander VI (1492 to 1503) Alexander VI bought his way into the papacy. ; Notre Dame, Indiana: The Ave Maria; 7th edition; 1893; pp. During that period, the four wax candles next to it burned right down, and the complexion of the dead man became increasingly foul and black. Alexander's diplomacy, however, turned the tide, and Cesare, in exchange for promising to assist the French in the south, was given a free hand in central Italy. A CCORDING to the majority of authors, Pope Alexander VI. Reuben Parsons, D.D. Thus further weakened, he felt more than ever that he had only his own kin to rely upon, and his thoughts were ever turned on family aggrandizement. They therefore started the response, 'Free me, 0 Lord,' but as they were chanting, some of the palace guards seized the tapers. style, to fill the coffers for his political bribes and to fund his various military The most famous of his offspring were his son Cesare, noted for the murder of political rivals, and his daughter Lucrezia who was married off to a number of husbands for political gain. Pope Alexander VI - Biography.Pope Alexander VI, born Rodrigo Lanzol Borja was Pope from 1492 until his death on 18 August 1503. Louis XII, having succeeded in the north, determined to conquer southern Italy as well, and concluded a treaty with Spain for the division of the Neapolitan kingdom, which was ratified by the pope on the 25th of June, Frederick being formally deposed. The year was 1492, and Rodrigo Borgia became Pope Alexander VI. John Burchard, a sort of living papal Captain's Log, recorded Alexander VI's gruesome death. This defection decided the pope to come to terms, and on the 31st of December Charles entered Rome with his troops and the cardinals of the French faction. One thing historians agree upon, more than 200 years after the fact, is that Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr didn't like each other very much. As soon as Alexander heard the news he decoyed Cardinal Orsini to the Vatican and cast him into a dungeon, where he died. As is the case generally with events inside the Vatican, mystery shrouds his demise, … He offered to help Louis on condition that Sicily begiven to Cesare, and then offered to help Spain in exchange for Siena, Pisa and Bologna. Alexander VI and his son Cesare Borgia emerged as two of the most feared and hated figures in Italy during the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, leading some to believe Pope Alexander VI's cause of death was assassination. Preparations for defense were made; a Neapolitan army was to advance through the Romagna and attack Milan, while the fleet was to seize Genoa; but both expeditions were badly conducted and failed, and on the 8th of September Charles crossed the Alps and joined Lodovico il Moro at Milan. Lucrezia Borgia (April 18, 1480–June 24, 1519) was the illegitimate daughter of Pope Alexander VI (Rodrigo Borgia) by one of his mistresses.She had three political marriages, arranged for her family's advantage, and likely had several adulterous alliances. of the Popes", (German ed., Freiburg, 1895), III, 275-278; also Am. After Borgia’s death, Pope Pius III served as 215th Pope only for 26 days before his death on October 18, 1503. of the Popes", (German ed., Freiburg, 1895), III, 275-278; also Am. One of his major rivals was Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia, who was elected Pope Alexander VI in 1492. With this, Montini selected the papal name Paul VI. 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